Monday, May 30, 2016

Vague Promises of Debt Relief for Greece


The New York Times

European leaders congratulated themselves last week for reaching an agreement to provide more loans to Greece and eventually ease the terms of the country’s huge debt. But there is little to celebrate.

Greece is bankrupt in all but name. The country has a debt of more than 300 billion euros ($333 billion), or about 180 percent of its gross domestic product, a sum it cannot hope to repay in full.

Most of that money is owed to Germany, France, Italy and other countries in the eurozone. After an 11-hour meeting last week, the eurozone finance ministers said that they would lend another 7.5 billion euros to Greece next month to help it pay off debt and grant it some relief, possibly including lower interest rates and extended payment periods, but not until mid-2018.

Friday, May 27, 2016

Είμαστε και φαινόμαστε

Κυρίτσης Γιώργος|26.05.2016

Εφημερίδα Αυγή

"...Γι' αυτό ακριβώς ψηφίστηκε τον Σεπτέμβριο, για να μετακυλήσει όσο μπορεί τα βάρη στους μενουμευρωπαίους,..."

Του Γιώργου Κυρίτση

Thursday, May 26, 2016

Greece’s Inconclusive Debt Deal

Tuesday’s accord, rather being than a decisive break in Athens’ crisis, puts off thorny political decisions
The Wall Street Journal

May 25, 2016 5:12 p.m. ET
Greece has a new debt deal—but then it was always going to get a new debt deal.

Time and again, the eurozone has demonstrated that it is bound together by impressive reservoirs of political will: not only the will of debtors such as the Greeks, for whom the euro is both a trusted store of value and a symbol of their common European destiny, but also the will of creditors, who have been unwilling to risk the great costs and inevitable political upheavals of a eurozone breakup. Indeed, the determination to reach a deal was even greater at a time the breakup of the European Union itself is on the table in the U.K.’s Brexit referendum.

Wednesday, May 25, 2016

Greece Begins Moving Refugees Out of Idomeni Camp


The New York Times

ATHENS — The Greek authorities began moving hundreds of refugees on Tuesday out of a sprawling makeshift camp near the village of Idomeni, on the border with Macedonia, a crucial point on the so-called Balkan trail for migrants that has been closed off for months.

A police operation started around 6 a.m., and by early evening more than 2,000 refugees had been taken by bus to state-run encampments near Thessaloniki, the second-largest city in Greece.

Riot police officers were stationed outside the area, as there were concerns that the operation would lead to unrest. But a spokesman for the Greek police, Lt. Col. Theodoros Chronopoulos, said the evacuation of the camp, which had 20,000 migrants at its peak in March and until Tuesday morning about 8,000, most of them Syrians, was carried out “completely smoothly” and would continue through the end of the week.

Global stocks climb as Brexit, Grexit risks ease

Wed May 25, 2016 5:26am EDT


Easing concerns over several major global risks helped stock markets rise robustly for a second day on Wednesday, underpinned by gains in oil and metals prices and data showing the U.S. economy can deal with a hike in interest rates.

Traders say several polls showing Britain will vote strongly to stay in the European Union in a referendum in June have done more than just support sterling, up 5 percent in trade-weighted terms from lows hit in April.

A new debt deal for Greece also looked to have headed off the risk of another round of uncertainty over its finances and even its future in the euro zone after a funding crisis a year ago, pushing European stock markets higher across the board.

Greece to Get $11.5 Billion Payout as Debt Relief Weighed

 Ian Wishart

 Corina Ruhe

 Mark Deen

May 25, 2016 — 3:52 AM EEST Updated on May 25, 2016


Greece’s creditors reached an agreement that will allow the release of 10.3 billion euros ($11.5 billion) of aid and committed to ease the nation’s 321 billion euros of debt.
At a meeting of euro-area finance ministers in Brussels Tuesday, the International Monetary Fund stood down from its hard-line stance after delaying the payout, having insisted that Greece’s program didn’t offer a path to fiscal sustainability.

I.M.F. Takes Firmer Stand Favoring Relief for Greek Debt


The New York Times

BRUSSELS — The International Monetary Fund is increasing demands for Greek debt relief, setting up another potential standoff with creditors over the country’s bailout, and threatening to create more political and economic uncertainty at an already tumultuous time for Europe.

This I.M.F.’s position opens the next act in the long-running Greek debt crisis, casting the fund against Germany and many of the other eurozone creditors.

The fund is playing the role of the financial police, adamant that Greece will never return to growth if its debt burden is not sustainable. And Germany is the political pragmatist, leaning on Greece to stick with its austerity commitments lest it set a bad precedent for future bailouts and provoke unrest at home.

E.U. Ministers Agree to Extend Another Lifeline to Greece


The New York Times

BRUSSELS — Fearing a renewed crisis in Greece that could set off economic shock waves, policy makers across three continents have scrambled to strike a deal to ease the country’s debt burden. There have been meetings in the United States, a diplomatic blitz in Europe and talks in Japan.

In an agreement announced early Wednesday, Greece won additional pledges of debt relief, but nothing substantial until 2018 at the earliest, and only then if it continues to carry out painful reforms. Even so, the accord could help ease concerns about another flare-up of a crisis in Greece as the region deals with a mass influx of migrants and a continuing terrorist threat.

Tuesday, May 24, 2016

Greece Needs Debt Relief More Than Ever

COMMENTARY by  Remy Davison
MAY 24, 2016, 1:00 AM


It would be short-sighted to challenge aid.

As Eurozone finance ministers on Tuesday prepare to gather for a meeting to discuss Greece’s bailout, some officials are once again holding out on approving much needed funds to help the financially-troubled country pay off its debts. Regardless of their reasons, the idea of limiting aid to Greece is different today and shouldn’t even be an issue, given how increasingly vulnerable Europe’s economy has become.

Greece Begins Moving Refugees Out of Idomeni Camp


The New York Times

ATHENS — The Greek authorities began moving hundreds of refugees on Tuesday out of a sprawling makeshift camp near the village of Idomeni, on the border with Macedonia, a crucial point on the so-called Balkan trail for migrants that has been closed off for months.

A police operation started around 6 a.m., with officers, some in uniform and others in plain clothes, leading 340 people onto six buses bound for state-run encampments near Thessaloniki, the second-largest city in Greece.

Riot police officers were stationed outside the area, as there were concerns that the operation would lead to unrest. But a spokesman for the Greek police, Lt. Col. Theodoros Chronopoulos, said the evacuation of the camp, which had 20,000 migrants at its peak in March and until Tuesday morning about 8,000, most of them Syrians, was carried out “completely smoothly” and would continue though the end of the week.

Monday, May 23, 2016

Euro Area Said to Plan $12 Billion for Greece After Review

 Ian Wishart

 Eleni Chrepa


May 23, 2016 — 11:39 AM EEST Updated on May 23, 2016 — 1:23 PM EEST

Greece’s European creditors are preparing to disburse 11 billion euros ($12.3 billion) once the nation successfully completes a review of its bailout program.
The funds will be used to clear arrears and to cover debt servicing needs, including a 2.3 billion-euro payment scheduled to the European Central Bank in July, according to a draft of the European Commission’s compliance report for the Greek economic program seen by Bloomberg News.

Greece bailout: MPs approve new cuts to unblock bailout funds
22 May 2016


The Greek parliament has passed new budget cuts and tax rises two days before a eurozone meeting expected to unblock much-needed bailout funds.
The government led by the leftist Syriza coalition passed the widely unpopular bill by 153 votes to 145.
Greece agreed to a third bailout worth €86bn (£67bn; $96bn) last year.
Demonstrators gathered outside parliament on Sunday to protest against the new legislation. Eurozone finance ministers meet in Brussels on Tuesday.

Friday, May 20, 2016

15 Books, Hemingway thought were worth reading

The Blue Hotel (public library) by Stephen Crane
The Open Boat (public library) by Stephen Crane
Madame Bovary (free ebook | public library) by Gustave Flaubert
Dubliners (public library) by James Joyce
The Red and the Black (public library) by Stendhal
Of Human Bondage (free ebook | public library) by W. Somerset Maugham
Anna Karenina (free ebook | public library) by Leo Tolstoy
War and Peace (free ebook | public library) by Leo Tolstoy
Buddenbrooks (public library) by Thomas Mann
Hail and Farewell (public library) by George Moore
The Brothers Karamazov (public library) by Fyodor Dostoyevsky
The Oxford Book of English Verse (public library)
The Enormous Room (public library) by E.E. Cummings
Wuthering Heights (free ebook | public library) by Emily Brontë
Far Away and Long Ago (free ebook | public library) by W.H. Hudson
The American (free ebook | public library) by Henry James

Thursday, May 19, 2016

Now or later? Euro zone, IMF at odds over when Greece should get debt relief

Thu May 19, 2016 6:50am EDT Related: GREECE

The euro zone and International Monetary are struggling with Greece's debt crisis - not with Athens this time, but with each other over when to give Greece a break on its future massive debt repayments.

The euro zone has begun talks on debt relief for Greece but wants to postpone the final decision until 2018; the IMF insists Greek debt repayment is unsustainable and investors need clarity now.

Euro zone finance ministers are likely to forge a tentative plan when they meet next Tuesday - what in Brussels-speak is known as a political agreement. But their offer is unlikely to be anything but highly conditional, euro zone officials preparing the talks said.

Tuesday, May 17, 2016

Forecast Bright for Greek Tourism, Despite Refugee Crisis

Voice of America

Margaret Besheer
May 16, 2016 3:10 PM

Despite the ongoing migrant and refugee crisis, Greece expects to welcome a record 27 million tourists this year.

“I think it’s an achievement given the fact that we have capital controls, we still have the refugee and migration crisis - which make tourists think twice if they want to visit Lesbos or some other places that are migration hubs,” the government’s top spokesperson Lefteris Kretsos told reporters on Monday.

“Greece is a brand name in tourism. It was always, and I think it will always be,” he added.

Tsipras inaugurates TAP gas pipeline in Greece

By Nasos Koukakis, special to CNBC

ATHENS- Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras will inaugurate the start of construction for the TransAdriatic Pipeline (TAP) in Thessaloniki, Northern Greece on Tuesday. Official representatives of the European Union and U.S. State Department as well as high ranking officials from Greece, Turkey, Albania, Italy and Bulgaria will attend the ceremony.

TAP will transport Azerbaijani gas from Shah Deniz-2, extracted in the Azeri sector of the Caspian, to western Europe through Greece and Albania. It is part of the Southern Gas Corridor, one of the most complex gas value chains ever developed stretching over 2,174 miles. The first delivery of Azerbaijani gas is scheduled for early 2020.

The $45 billion project represents the biggest foreign investment that has ever taken place in Greece. The shareholders of the project are: Socar (20 percent), BP (20 percent), Snam (20 percent), Fluxys (19 percent), Enagas (16 percent) and Axpo (5 percent).

This project opens broad opportunities for transportation of Azerbaijani gas to such European markets as Italy, Germany, Great Britain, Switzerland and Austria. It also will help Europe diversify its sources of natural gas. Currently Russia is the major gas supplier for the continent.
At the same time, construction of the pipeline will help the anemic economies of Albania and Greece. It is expected that construction of the pipeline will employ 150 Greek companies as contractors, subcontractors or track support, and about 8,000 workers.

On Monday, Greek Minister of Environment and Energy Panos Skourletis told the Athens News Agency, "We are entering into a new phase for the economy. The TAP project will offer a strong boost to move forward."

TAP's initial capacity of 10 billion cubic meters (bcm) of gas per year is equivalent to the energy consumption of approximately seven million households in Europe. In future, the addition of two extra compressor stations could double throughput to more than 20 bcm as additional energy supplies come on stream in the wider Caspian region.

Russia is trying to bolster pipeline links with the continent through southern Europe. Gazprom tried and failed to gain strategic entry through Bulgaria and Turkey. Recently it announced new plans with Italian utility Edison and Greece's DEPA to supply natural gas along the seabed of the Black Sea into Greece and Italy, from where it could be sold in Europe.

The so-called Interconnector Turkey Greece Italy (ITGI) Poseidon pipeline scheme — unable to get off the ground for years — was shelved in 2012 after it lost out to TAP. Gazprom is now trying to get this project revived. It would consist of an offshore pipeline that will connect the Greek and Italian natural gas transportation systems. The capacity of the pipeline would be 8 billion cubic meters of natural gas a year.

It is expected that during his visit to Athens on May 28 Russian President Vladimir Putin will seek to gain support for the Poseidon pipeline.

Follow CNBC International on Twitter and Facebook.

—By Nasos Koukakis, special to

IMF Wants Eurozone Debt Relief for Greece Until 2040

Interest rate on eurozone loans would be fixed for 30 to 40 years, say people familiar with IMF proposal

Updated May 17, 2016 3:28 a.m. ET
BERLIN—The International Monetary Fund is pressing the eurozone to let Greece skip paying interest or principal on bailout loans until 2040, say officials familiar with the talks.

The IMF wants the loans to Greece to fall due gradually in the following decades, and as late as 2080, according to the IMF’s proposal.

Greece’s interest rate on eurozone loans would be fixed for 30 to 40 years at its current average level of 1.5%, with all interest payments postponed until loans start falling due, under the IMF proposal.

Monday, May 16, 2016

Dying Infants and No Medicine: Inside Venezuela’s Failing Hospitals


The New York Times

BARCELONA, Venezuela — By morning, three newborns were already dead.

The day had begun with the usual hazards: chronic shortages of antibiotics, intravenous solutions, even food. Then a blackout swept over the city, shutting down the respirators in the maternity ward.

Doctors kept ailing infants alive by pumping air into their lungs by hand for hours. By nightfall, four more newborns had died.

“The death of a baby is our daily bread,” said Dr. Osleidy Camejo, a surgeon in the nation’s capital, Caracas, referring to the toll from Venezuela’s collapsing hospitals.

Friday, May 13, 2016

International Monetary Fund Faces Pressure From Germany Over Greece

Berlin believes IMF will accept Europe’s offers despite reservations, people familiar with the talks say

The Wall Street Journal

May 12, 2016 10:38 a.m. ET

ATHENS—In Europe’s battle with the International Monetary Fund over Greece, Germany has a way to win.

Germany, Europe’s dominant economic power, is leaning heavily on the IMF to accept hypothetical assurances that Greece’s debt burden will be addressed in the future if needed, rather than the definite and far-reaching debt relief that the IMF wanted, according to people familiar with the talks.

Berlin believes the IMF will have to accept what’s on offer, even if IMF staff are unhappy about it, these people say. The IMF is also under heavy European pressure to accept Greek austerity policies that are less specific than the cuts the IMF wanted. An accord hasn’t been reached yet, and some warn it could take several weeks.

Thursday, May 12, 2016

Why Greece Still Needs Debt Relief


COMMENTARY by  Barry Eichengreen  @b_eichengreen  MAY 11, 2016, 3:29 PM EDT

The Greek debt crisis is the crisis that never stops giving. More than six years have now passed since the crisis broke, and the country is still struggling to get its finances under control. In the latest installment, Greek lawmakers agreed early Monday morning to a new set of pension and tax reforms.

Unfortunately, the new package will not be enough, by itself, to prevent the crisis from blowing up again. Its higher marginal tax rates for top earners, lower tax-free thresholds, and additional pension cuts are designed to reduce the budget deficit by 1.5% to 3% of GDP. This is an expression of good faith intended to reassure German finance minister Wolfgang Schauble and his constituents.

Tuesday, May 10, 2016

Everyone’s outraged': angry Greeks foresee Grexit and drachma's revival

Greece faces its toughest austerity measures yet, with €5.4bn of budget cuts backed by the leftist government of Alexis Tsipras

The Guardian

n his tiny shop in downtown Athens, Kostis Nakos sits behind a wooden counter hunched over his German calculator. The 71-year-old might have retired had he been able to make ends meets but that is now simply impossible. “All day I’ve been sitting here doing the maths,” he sighs, surrounded by the undergarments and socks he has sold for the past four decades.

“My income tax has just gone up to 29%, my social security payments have gone up 20%, my pension has been cut by 50 euros; they are taxing coffee, fuel, the internet, tavernas, ferries, everything they can, and then there’s Enfia [the country’s much-loathed property levy]. Now that makes me mad. They said they would take that away!”

A mild man in milder times, Nakos finds himself becoming increasingly angry. So, too, do the vast majority of Greeks who walked through his door on Monday. “Everyone’s outraged, they’ve been swearing, insulting the government, calling [prime minister] Alexis Tsipras a liar,” he exclaims after parliament’s decision on Sunday night to pass yet more austerity measures. “And they’re right. Everything he said, everything he promised, was a fairy tale.”

Until the debt-stricken country’s financial collapse, shops like this were the lifeblood of Greece. For small-time merchants, the pain has been especially vivid because, like everyone Nakos knows, he voted for Tsipras and his leftist Syriza party.

Now the man who was swept to power on a platform to eradicate austerity has passed the toughest reforms to date – overhauling the pension system, raising taxes and increasing social security fund contributions as the price of emergency bailout aid.

As MPs voted inside the red-carpeted 300-seat chamber on Sunday, police who had blocked off a large part of the city centre deployed teargas and water cannon against the thousands of anti-austerity demonstrators amassed outside. It was a world away from the day the tieless, anti-austerity leftists first assumed office, tearing down the barricades outside the sandstone parliament building.

The latest measures – worth €5.4bn (£4.3bn) in budget savings – mark a new era. After nine months of wrangling with the international creditors keeping the country afloat, Athens must apply policies that until now had been abstract concepts for a populace who have suffered as unemployment and poverty rates have soared.

For many, their arrival marks a new juncture, a psychological cut-off point whose consequences are yet untold. “For a long time, people had a cushion. There was fat in the system but that has now gone,” says Vassilis Korkidis, who heads the National Confederation of Hellenic Commerce.

One by one, Korkidis rattles off the figures: Greece’s internal debt amounts to €220bn of which €119bn are non-performing loans; its external debt is close to €330bn; about 230,000 enterprises have shut since the start of the crisis including 10,000 this year alone. “Soon people will have to deal with tax declarations and Enfia and, by September, everything will have piled up. An explosion is possible. September is going to be a very decisive month.”

In his yellow Toyota, Giorgos Balabanis, a taxi driver for the past 15 years, puts it another way. His car, he insists, is a university of life. “All sorts” get in and out. “And what I am hearing every day is that until we leave the euro, until we return to the drachma, until we have a currency that is not so strong, things will never be right,” he says. “Remember me because it’s going to happen. There will be an explosion and Grexit and the drachma will come back.”

Sunday’s vote follows a period of relative calm. After the drama that underpinned the country’s third bailout last summer – €250bn has been given to Greece since the EU and International Monetary Fund first saved it from bankruptcy – Europe’s most indebted nation had dropped from the headlines.

It was thought the crisis had subsided, usurped by the drama of Europe’s refugees. But it had not gone away.

In 2016, just as in 2015 and every year for the previous five years, it had coursed like a cancer through Greek life, corroding families, closing businesses, decimating hospitals and every other form of state care, leaving ever more destitute. Denuded of basic supplies, doctors say it is only a matter of time before the health system implodes.

“Learning to cope, living with uncertainty, it’s the new normal,” laments Pandelis Stergiou, a graduate medical student who would, he says, have joined the 300,000 who have migrated abroad if he did not love his country so much.

Increasingly, Greece is a land inhabited by rich and poor. Sights that were once shocking – middle class men and women rifling through the rubbish cans on streets – are now mundane. That worries Stergiou. Just as it worries Korkidis who foresees more companies fleeing, massive tax evasion returning and the black market flourishing as people try to survive.

“It can’t go on for ever,” the student, Stergiou, says. “Greeks are running out of stamina, they are running out of endurance. Who will be able to survive on pensions of €384 a month? Something will have to give.”

Monday, May 9, 2016

Greek PM Tsipras seeks debt relief and end to 'vicious cycle'



Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras has said it is time to end the "vicious cycle" of cuts and to start talks with the eurozone on debt relief.
Controversial new pension and tax reforms were passed by Greece's parliament on Monday.
The measures are needed to unlock further international bailout money, to be discussed at a meeting of eurozone finance ministers on Monday.
But they are unpopular with Greek anti-austerity campaigners and unions.
"We have an important opportunity before us for the country to break this vicious cycle, and enter a virtuous cycle," Mr Tsipras told MPs.
Monday, he said, "is a very important day. After six years, the Eurogroup will meet to discuss debt relief".

Key dates to watch on Greece as bailout rift cracks open

Published: May 9, 2016 10:14 a.m. ET
Market Watch

Greece faces key ECB repayment in July and still needs to unlock bailout funds


The seemingly never-ending Greek debt crisis returned to the fore on Monday, with the country trying to secure a fresh tranche of bailout money to keep it financially afloat over the summer.

The Greek parliament over the weekend approved an unpopular package of pension reforms and tax hikes that is seen as taking it one step closer to wrap up the long-delayed first review of its €86 billion bailout program agreed last summer. Concluding the review is key to unlocking bailout funds, which are crucial to repay €2.3 billion ($2.6 billion) to the European Central Bank in July. Greece is also due to pay the International Monetary Fund €300 million in June.

Friday, May 6, 2016

Greece hit by general strike over pension and tax change



Greeks have begun a three-day general strike in protest at further austerity measures that are being proposed in return for more bailout money.
Shipping, public transport and civil service departments were among sectors hit in a bid to stop the introduction of tax and pension changes.
The sudden 48-hour strike on Friday and Saturday was called in addition to action previously planned for Sunday.

Thursday, May 5, 2016

Το γλωσσάριο της κωλοτούμπας – Υποτέλεια

Του Θ Πάγκαλου

Posted on 26/04/2016 by admin2 — 0 Comments
Δυστυχώς, στην πολιτική μας ζωή κάποιος ανεγκέφαλος, πότε από το δεξιό άκρο πότε από τ’ αριστερό, διατυπώνει την αξίωση του μονοπωλίου της «εθνικοφροσύνης». Συχνά οι αιτίες είναι συμμετρικά αντίθετες. Τελευταία, με την ανάπτυξη του ρεύματος του εθνικώς υπερήφανου αντιευρωπαϊκού παραλογισμού (ΕΥΑΠ, προσοχή χωρίς Δ), ακροδεξιοί και ακροαριστεροί συμμετέχουν, χωρίς περίσκεψη και αιδώ, ισότιμα στο κυρίαρχο ρεύμα ιδεολογίας. Οργανώνουν και διαχειρίζονται κοινές αντιευρωπαϊκές και αντικοινοβουλευτικές συγκεντρώσεις, όπως η Άνω και Κάτω πλατεία Συντάγματος, των «αγανακτισμένων». Σε τελευταία ανάλυση ακροαριστεροί και ακροδεξιοί συγκροτούν ενιαία κυβερνητική πλειοψηφία και με απερίγραπτες κωλοτούμπες προσπαθούν να τη διατηρήσουν για να μη χαθεί η εξουσία.

Ahmet Davutoglu, Turkey’s Prime Minister, Is Expected to Be Replaced


The New York Times

ISTANBUL — The Turkish prime minister, Ahmet Davutoglu, a close ally of President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, will soon leave office, a government official said. His departure is occurring amid a disagreement between the two men over Mr. Erdogan’s drive for more power.

The two leaders met on Wednesday night, according to the Turkish official, who spoke on condition of anonymity to discuss a decision that had not been announced publicly. “It’s unlikely that Davutoglu will run for leadership again,” he said.

The threat of Grexit never really went away

Bailing out Greece

Brinkmanship over emergency loans resumes again

The Economist

May 4th 2016 | Online extra

THE tagline of the film “My Big Fat Greek Wedding 2”, which was released in March, is “People change. Greeks don’t.” Whether any euro-zone finance ministers have seen the film, let alone detected any resemblance to their ongoing talks with the Greek government over its third bail-out, is unknown. But the renewed bickering about whether Greece is keeping to its end of the bargain, complete with threats of a snap election if its creditors don’t give more ground, has the air of a duff sequel.

For ‘Brexit,’ Like ‘Grexit,’ It’s Not About Economics

Fear of political union is why many in Britain dislike the EU; it’s what keeps the Greeks attached to the euro

The Wall Street Journal

Updated May 4, 2016 1:50 p.m. ET
Britain’s flirtation with leaving the European Union is as puzzling as Greece’s stubborn desire to stay. After all, Britain’s economy has done quite well inside the bloc while Greece’s has been decimated.

What explains both sentiments is that the European project has always been about more than economics. It also seeks “an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe,” as the Treaty of Rome, its founding charter, declared in 1957.

Wednesday, May 4, 2016

Ποιοι κατέχουν το ελληνικό χρέος

Σύμφωνα με το γράφημα του BBC η Γερμανία είναι ο βασικότερος πιστωτής με 68,2 δισ. ευρώ. Ακολουθούν Γαλλία, Ιταλία και Ισπανία με 43,8 δισ., 38,4 δισ. και 25 δισ. ευρώ αντίστοιχα.
Το Διεθνές Νομισματικό Ταμείο έχει δανείσει 21,4 δισ. ευρώ και η Ευρωπαϊκή Κεντρική Τράπεζα 18,1 δισ. ευρώ.

Το χρέος που απεικονίζεται στο γράφημα είναι 267,5 δισ. ευρώ και παρουσιάζει τους βασικότερους πιστωτές και όχι όλους. Το σύνολο του ελληνικού χρέους ανέρχεται σε 321,3 δισ. ευρώ σύμφωνα με τα στοιχεία του ΟΔΔΗΧ στο τέλος του 2015.